Appendix B - Table B.1 Gamma-ray and X-ray Standards for Detector Calibration

Appendix Home Page | Appendix C | Appendix D | Appendix E

This Appendix contains evaluated and recommended data on a selected set of radionuclides suitable for use in the energy and efficiency calibration of detectors. The data in the first edition of this book were taken from X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Standards for Detector Calibration, published by the International Atomic Energy Agency as IAEA TECDOC-619. Since that time, the data has been re-evaluated and extended within the international Decay Date Evaluation Project (DDEP). After much delay the updated data was published by the IAEA as XGAMMA (X-ray and Gamma-ray Decay Data Standards for Detector Calibration and Other Applications) in late spring 2007.
Rather than reproduce the whole of that report, which is accessible on the internet at http://www-nds.iaea.org/xgamma_standards/, I have restricted myself to updating the data for nuclides in the original table. For convenience, the gamma-ray and X-ray standards, listed separately in XGAMMA, are here combined into one table. An Excel spreadsheet holding the original data is available for download via the XGAMMA webpage. I believe that all this data have been incorporated into the DDEP and LARA databases. (See the Data page for further details.) Another spreadsheet, xgamma.xls containing all the XGAMMA tables combined into one table, nuclide-by-nuclide, is available for download on this site.

Notes.

  • The 'decay mode' shown is the major mode but is frequently not the only one.
  • All half-lives are in days. This may appear cumbersome for the longer half-lives, but the year is not a unit approved for use with the SI. (A calendar year is of variable length; in the long term, 1 year [international symbol a] = 365.242 198 78 d, and this is sometimes used.)
  • The uncertainties shown are estimated standard uncertainties, and refer to the uncertainty of the last one or two digits; thus 950.8 (9) means 950.8 0.9 and 0.99935 (15) means 0.99935 0.00015.
  • In general, X-rays below 10 keV have been omitted.
  • Where appropriate, emissions have been identified as particular X-rays or gamma-rays emitted by a particular daughter nuclide. Unidentified emissions are gamma-rays from the nuclide for which the data is quoted.

NuclideDecay
Mode
Half-life
(d)
Emission
ID
Energy
(keV)
Emission
Probability
Pg

22NaEC950.57 (23)511.001.798 (2)
1274.537 (3)0.9994 (14)

24Na 0.62329 (6)1368.626 (5)0.999935 (5)
2754.007 (11)0.99872 (8)

46Sc 83.79 (4)Ti K4.510.000047 (2)
889.271 (2)0.999833 (5)
1120.537 (3)0.99986 (-4,+36)

51CrEC27.7009 (20)V Ka4.94 - 4.950.202 (3)
V Kb5.43 - 5.460.0269 (7)
320.0835 (4)0.0987 (5)

54MnEC312.29 (26)Cr Ka5.405 - 5.4150.00227 (3)
Cr Kb5.9470.000305 (7)
834.838 (5)0.999746 (11)

55FeEC1002.7 (23)Mn L0.556 - 0.7210.0066 (10)
Mn Ka25.88770.0845 (14)
Mn Ka15.89880.1656 (27)
Mn Kb16.49 - 6.540.034 (7)

56CoEC77.236 (26)Fe Ka26.39091 (5)0.0753 (10)
Fe Ka16.40391 (3)0.1475 (17)
Fe Kb17.058 - 7.1080.0305 (5)
846.7638 (19)0.999399 (23)
977.363 (4)0.01422 (7)
1037.8333 (24)0.1403 (5)
1175.0878 (22)0.02249 (9)
1238.2736 (22)0.6641 (16)
1360.196 (4)0.0428 (13)
1771.327 (3)0.1545 (4)
2015.176 (5)0.03017 (14)
2034.752 (5)0.07741 (13)
2598.438 (4)0.1696 (4)
3009.559 (4)0.01038 (19)
3201.93 (11)0.03203 (13)
3253.402 (5)0.0787 (3)
3272.978 (6)0.01855 (9)
3451.119 (4)0.00942 (6)

57CoEC271.8 (5)Fe Ka26.390840.168 (3)
Fe Ka16.403840.332 (5)
Fe Kb17.058 - 7.1080.071 (2)
14.41295 (31)0.0915 (17)
122.06065 (12)0.8551 (6)
136.47356 (29)0.1071 (15)

58CoEC70.86 (6)Fe Ka6.40.235 (3)
Fe Kb7.060.032 (10)
Ni Ka7.46 - 7.480.000098 (3)
Ni Kb8.26 - 8.330.0000136 (5)
5110.3 (4)
810.759 (2)0.9945 (1)

60Co 1925.23 (27)Ni Ka7.46 - 7.480.000098 (3)
Ni Kb8.26 - 8.330.0000136 (5)
1173.228 (3)0.9985 (3)
1332.492 (4)0.999826 (6)

65ZnEC243.86 (20)Cu Ka8.03 - 8.050.347 (3)
Cu Kb8.90 - 8.980.0482 (7)
511.000.0284 (4)
1115.539 (2)0.506 (22)

75SeEC119.778 (29)As L1.280.0206 (7)
As Ka210.5080.1659 (23)
As Ka110.54370.322 (4)
As Kb11.72 - 11.860.0764 (12)
66.0518 (8)0.01112 (12)
96.734 (9)0.0342 (3)
121.1155 (11)0.172 (3)
136.0001 (6)0.582 (7)
198.606 (12)0.0148 (4)
264.6576 (9)0.589 (3)
279.5422 (10)0.2499 (13)
303.9236 (10)0.01316 (8)
400.6572 (8)0.1147 (9)

85SrEC64.851 (5)Rb Ka213.3359 (2)0.1716 (17)
Rb Ka113.3955 (1)0.3304 (29)
Rb Kb114.95 - 15.090.0804 (10)
Rb Kb215.19 - 15.210.0093 (4)
514.0048 (22)0.985 (4)

88YEC106.625 (24)Sr Ka214.098 (1)0.173 (22)
Sr Ka114.1652 (2)0.332 (4)
Sr Kb115.8359 (4)0.0821 (12)
Sr Kb216.0847 (6)0.0107 (4)
898.036 (4)0.939 (23)
1836.052 (13)0.9938 (3)

93mNbIT5.73 (22) 103Nb Ka216.52130.0316 (7)
Nb Ka116.61520.0604 (12)
Nb Kb118.6180.0156 (5)
Nb Kb218.9530.0023 (1)
30.77 (2)0.000559 (16)

94Nb 7.3 (9) 106702.639 (4)0.99815 (6)
871.114 (3)0.99892 (3)

95Nb 34.991 (6)Mo Ka217.3740.000286 (9)
Mo Ka117.4790.000546 (17)
Mo Kb119.59 - 19.770.000143 (5)
Mo Kb219.96 - 20.000.000022 (11)
765.803 (6)0.99808 (7)

109CdEC461.4 (12)Ag Ka221.9906 (2)0.2899 (25)
Ag Ka122.1632 (1)0.547 (4)
Ag Kb124.912 - 25.1460.1514 (18)
Ag Kb225.457 - 25.5120.0263 (10)
88.0336 (11)0.03626 (20)

111InEC2.8049 (6)Cd Ka222.98430.236 (2)
Cd Ka123.17380.444 (3)
Cd Kb126.061 - 26.3040.124 (4)
Cd Kb226.64 - 26.700.023 (1)
171.28 (3)0.9066 (25)
245.35 (4)0.9409 (6)

113SnEC115.09 (4)In Ka224.0020.2785 (22)
In Ka124.20970.522 (4)
In Kb127.238 - 27.4990.146 (12)
In Kb227.861 - 27.9400.0284 (2)
255.134 (10)0.0211 (8)
391.698 (3)0.6494 (17)

125Sb 1007.48 (21)Te Ka227.202 (2)0.191 (7)
Te Ka127.4726 (2)0.357 (12)
Te Kb130.945 - 31.2360.102 (4)
Te Kb231.701 - 31.7740.0221 (10)
176.314 (2)0.0682 (7)
380.452 (8)0.0152 (15)
427.874 (4)0.2955 (24)
463.365 (4)0.1048 (9)
600.597 (2)0.1776 (18)
606.713 (3)0.0502 (5)
635.95 (3)0.1132 (10)
671.441 (6)0.01783 (16)

125IEC59.402 (14)Te Ka227.202 (2)0.397 (6)
Te Ka127.4726 (2)0.74 (11)
Te Kb130.945 - 31.2410.212 (4)
Te Kb231.701 - 31.8120.0459 (14)
35.4919 (5)0.0667 (17)

133BaEC3848.7 (12)Cs Ka230.6250.34 (4)
Cs Ka130.9730.628 (7)
Cs Kb134.92 - 35.260.182 (2)
Cs Kb235.82 - 35.970.046 (1)
53.1622 (6)0.0214 (3)
79.6142 (12)0.0265 (5)
80.9979 (11)0.329 (3)
276.3989 (12)0.0716 (5)
302.8508 (5)0.1834 (13)
356.0129 (7)0.6205 (19)
383.8485 (12)0.0894 (6)

134Cs 753.5 (10)563.243 (3)0.0837 (3)
569.327 (3)0.1538 (4)
604.72 (3)0.9765 (18)
795.83 (3)0.855 (3)
801.945 (4)0.087 (3)
1365.186 (4)0.03017 (12)

137Cs 1.099 (4) 104Ba L3.954 - 5.9730.009 (5)
Ba Ka231.81740.0195 (4)
Ba Ka132.19390.0359 (7)
Ba Kb136.31 - 36.670.01055 (22)
Ba Kb237.26 - 37.430.00266 (8)
661.657 (3)0.8499 (20)

139CeEC137.642 (20)La Ka233.0344 (2)0.225 (3)
La Ka133.4421 (1)0.412 (4)
La Kb137.721 - 38.0950.123 (18)
La Kb238.730 - 38.9100.0311 (6)
165.8575 (11)0.799 (4)

152EuEC 4941 (7)Sm Ka239.52290.208 (3)
Sm Ka140.11860.377 (5)
Sm Kb145.289 - 45.7310.1178 (19)
Sm Kb246.575 - 46.8130.0304 (8)
121.7817 (3)0.2841 (13)
244.6974 (8)0.0755 (4)
344.2785 (12)0.2658 (12)
411.1165 (12)0.02237 (10)
443.965 (3)0.03125 (14)
778.9045 (24)0.1296 (6)
867.38 (3)0.04241 (23)
964.072 (18)0.1462 (6)
1085.837 (10)0.1013 (6)
1089.737 (5)0.01731 (10)
1112.076 (3)0.134 (6)
1212.948 (11)0.01415 (9)
1299.142 (8)0.01632 (9)
1408.013 (3)0.2085 (9)

154Eu 3138.1 (14)Gd Ka242.30930.072 (2)
Gd Ka142.99670.13 (3)
Gd Kb148.556 - 49.0530.041 (1)
Gd Kb249.961 - 50.2190.0108 (3)
123.0706 (9)0.404 (5)
247.9288 (7)0.0689 (7)
591.755 (3)0.0495 (5)
692.4205 (18)0.0179 (3)
723.3014 (22)0.2005 (21)
756.802 (23)0.0453 (5)
873.1834 (23)0.1217 (12)
996.262 (6)0.105 (10)
1004.725 (7)0.1785 (17)
1246.121 (4)0.00862 (8)
1274.429 (4)0.349 (3)
1596.4804 (28)0.01783 (17)

155Eu 1736 (6)26.531 (21)0.00316 (22)
Gd Ka242.30930.067 (13)
Gd Ka142.99670.1205 (23)
45.299 (10)0.0131 (5)
Gd Kb148.556 - 49.0530.0384 (11)
Gd Kb249.961 - 50.2190.0098 (3)
60.0086 (10)0.0122 (5)
86.0591 (10)0.00154 (17)
86.5479 (10)0.307 (3)
105.3083 (10)0.211 (6)

198Au 2.695 (7)Hg Ka268.8952 (12)0.00809 (8)
Hg Ka170.8196 (12)0.01372 (12)
Hg Kb179.82 - 80.760.00466 (8)
Hg Kb282.43 - 83.030.00136 (4)
411.80205 (17)0.9554 (7)
675.8836 (7)0.00806 (7)
1087.6842 (7)0.00159 (3)

203Hg -46.594 (12)Tl L8.953 - 14.7380.0543 (9)
Tl Ka270.8325 (8)0.0375 (4)
Tl Ka172.8725 (8)0.0633 (6)
Tl Kb182.118 - 83.1150.0215 (4)
Tl Kb284.838 - 85.5300.0064 (2)
279.1952 (10)0.8148 (8)

207BiEC1.18 (3) 104Pb L9.18 - 15.840.332 (14)
Pb Ka272.8050.2169 (24)
Pb Ka174.970.365 (4)
Pb Kb184.451 - 85.4700.1246 (23)
Pb Kb287.238 - 88.0030.0376 (10)
569.698 (2)0.9776 (3)
1063.656 (3)0.7458 (49)
1770.228 (9)0.0687 (3)

228Th 698.6 (23)Tl Ll8.9530.00169 (9)

with its daughters in equilibrium.
208Tl emission probabilities have
been adjusted for 212Bi
branching (35.94%).
Pb L9.184 - 15.2160.0104 (2)
Tl La10.172 - 10.2680.0326 (17)
Tl L?10.994 - 12.6430.0272 (15)
Ra La12.196 - 12.3390.0286 (15)
Ra L?13.662 - 15.4470.047 (3)
Tl L?14.291 - 14.7380.005 (2)
Ra L?17.848 - 18.4120.0102 (6)
Pb Ka272.8049 (8)0.0077 (2)
Bi Ka274.8157 (9)0.107 (3)
Pb Ka174.97 (9)0.013 (3)
Bi Ka177.1088 (10)0.179 (5)
84.373 (3)0.0117 (5)
Pb Kb184.451 - 85.4700.0044 (2)
Bi Kb186.835 - 87.8620.0612 (20)
Pb Kb287.238 - 88.0030.00134 (5)
Bi Kb289.732 - 90.5220.0187 (7)
212Pb 115.183 (5)0.00623 (22)
131.612 (4)0.00124 (6)
215.985 (4)0.00226 (20)
212Pb 238.632 (2)0.436 (3)
208Tl 277.37 (3)0.0237 (11)
212Pb 300.09 (1)0.0318 (13)
208Tl 583.187 (2)0.3055 (17)
212Bi 727.33 (1)0.0674 (12)
212Bi 785.37 (9)0.0111 (1)
208Tl 860.56 (3)0.0448 (4)
212Bi 1620.74 (1)0.0151 (3)
208Tl 2614.511 (10)0.3585 (7)

239Np 2.35 (4)Pu Ka199.5250.135 (4)
Half-live from XGAMMA
Emission data DDEP.
103.7340.214 (6)
106.125 (2)0.259 (3)
228.183 (1)0.1132 (22)
277.599 (1)0.144 (1)

241Am 1.5785 (23) 105Np Ll11.89 (2)0.00848 (10)
Np La13.9 (2)0.1303 (10)
Np L?17.81 (2)0.1886 (15)
Np L?20.82 (2)0.0481 (4)
26.3446 (2)0.024 (3)
33.1963 (3)0.00121 (3)
59.5409 (1)0.3578 (9)

243Am 2.692 (8) 106Np Ll11.8710.00445 (14)
Np La13.761 - 13.9460.0705 (20)
Np L?15.8610.00126 (4)
Np L16.109 - 17.9920.0818 (16)
Np L?20.784 - 21.4910.0197 (4)
43.53 (2)0.0589 (10)
74.66 (2)0.672 (12)

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